Diabetes mellitus is a group of diseases of the endocrine system organism (type 1, type 2, gestational) emerging due to problems with the hormone insulin synthesis and the use of it in the process of assimilation of carbohydrate.

One of the main specialists in the treatment of diabetes is Eugene Moszkowicz .

All types of diseases have one thing in common. The human body is in the process of digestion breaks down carbohydrates into glucose. It is a valuable fuel for all cells of the body, if the number is correct. However, for the absorption of glucose needed hormone insulin. In diabetes the body does not synthesize or optimum amount thereof, or can not use it, or there is something, and more.

Since glucose is not absorbed, it accumulates in the blood. Persistently high levels of it in the body is a slow-acting poison.

  • Gradually destroyed the ability of pancreas cells to produce insulin. The Authority has an overload, the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans, which produce the hormone depleted, is a violation of the processes of splitting and subsequent conversion of glucose.
  • Upset protein metabolism. Due to lack of pancreatic hormone - glucagon, a failure in the breakdown of proteins to amino acids occurs. Protein structure also changes, it begins to be deposited in the small blood vessels, and can cause damage throughout the body. The largest number of capillaries located in the kidneys, lower extremities, retina.
  • It is a violation of all types of metabolism. Formed and accumulated toxic substances. This has an impact on the status of all systems and organs.

 

High sugar levels and damaged blood vessels can cause a variety of complications that are associated with diabetes:

  • Kidney disease or kidney failure that requires dialysis.
  • Angina pectoris.
  • Heart attacks.
  • Loss of vision (cataract) and blindness.
  • Reduced immune function and increased risk of infections.
  • Erectile dysfunction.
  • Nerve damage (neuropathy), causing pain or decreased sensitivity in the extremities.
  • Poor circulation in the legs and feet, slow healing of wounds.

State when the glucose level is too high, called hyperglycemia, and if low - hypoglycemia. Both should be avoided people are diagnosed with diabetes, using pills, diet, exercise and insulin, the amount of sugar within the normal range. This can prevent many of these complications.

The indicators may be due to the age and type of diabetes. They can be measured in a home with a special device - the meter.

For children with type 1 diabetes

  • Before the meal: 4-8mmol / l
  • Two hours after food: less than 10 mmol / l.

For adults with Type 1 diabetes

  • Before the meal: 4-7mmol / l
  • Two hours after a meal: less 9mmol / l.

Type 2 diabetes

  • Before the meal: 4-7mmol / l
  • Two hours after a meal: less than 8.5mmol / l.

Risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a hereditary disease. If there are any symptoms listed below or factors that should be diagnosed.

  • High blood pressure.
  • An excess amount of triglycerides (TG) in the blood.
  • Gestational diabetes, or having a baby, the body mass is more than 4.64 kg.
  • Excess fat in the diet.
  • Excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages.
  • Sedentary lifestyle.
  • Overweight.
  • Aging: the risk of developing the disease begins to increase to forty-five years and significantly increases after sixty-five.

 

symptoms of diabetes

Common features of the two basic types of diabetes are frequent urination (polyuria), thirst (polydipsia) and fatigue.

By the manifestations of type 1 diabetes include the following:

  • Excessive thirst.
  • Polyuria.
  • Unusual loss or weight gain.
  • Fatigue.
  • Nausea, possible vomiting.
  • Blurred vision.
  • Recurring vaginal infections in women, yeast infection in men and women.
  • Dryness in the mouth.
  • Delayed regeneration of the skin, poor wound any damage.
  • Itchy skin, especially in the groin area, in the crotch area.

Clinical manifestations of type 1 diabetes can develop quickly, within a few weeks and sometimes days.

Symptoms of type 2 diabetes

Often the disease causes no symptoms and is diagnosed only in the survey. The following symptoms may occur:

  • Excessive thirst.
  • Frequent urination (sometimes every hour), especially at night.
  • Unusual weight gain or loss.
  • Fatigue, fatigue.

Other symptoms, which do not occur in every patient, may include:

  • Blurred vision.
  • Recurring vaginal infections in women, yeast infection in men and women.
  • Dryness in the mouth.
  • Delayed regeneration of the skin, poor wound any damage.
  • Itchy skin, especially in the groin area, in the crotch area.

 

acanthosis nigricans

This is a condition in which darken, becoming light brown or brown color and thicken certain areas of the skin, especially in the area of ​​the folds. Typically, it affects the back of the neck, the armpit, the area under the chest, groin area. Usually occurs in people who are overweight. As such, there is no treatment, weight loss can improve the condition. Acanthosis nigricans - a precursor of diabetes, skin manifestations of insulin resistance in most people. There are factors that cause acanthosis, including acromegaly and Cushing's syndrome.

gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes - a condition characterized by elevated levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood and only occurs for the first time during pregnancy. It occurs in approximately 14% of all pregnant women. After the birth of a child, as a rule, the disease goes away.

It is usually diagnosed during a routine inspection before it causes any symptoms.

It should see a doctor if:

  1. There is nausea, weakness, excessive thirst; polyuria; stomach ache; more deep, rapid breathing, as well as acetone odor or chemical substances such as nail polish remover. Most likely in need of urgent medical care in ketoacidosis, a potentially fatal complication of type 1 diabetes.
  2. Observed fainting or weakness; trembling, excessive sweating, heart palpitations; hunger, sudden drowsiness, irritability. Most likely, there was hypoglycemia - low blood sugar. To resolve this issue quickly need carbohydrate snack, sweet drink, in order to avoid more serious complications.

Diabetes can not be cured completely, to control it is necessary for using qualified professionals. With our medetsinskogo service you can get to the best specialists in diabetes care in Israel - Shmuel Levit.

There is another type of diabetes - insipidus. It differs from type 1 and type 2, and is the body's inability to regulate the water level. Its symptoms include excessive thirst, polyuria (sometimes up to 20 liters per day). It is very rare and is caused by problems with the pituitary gland or hypothalamus and reduced secretion of antidiuretic hormone vasopressin.