Is it possible to identify acute lymphocytic leukemia at an early stage?Acute lymphoblastic leukemia

For many types of cancer diagnosis at an early stage of the disease significantly increases the effectiveness of treatment. But no special tests recommended for the diagnosis currently leukemia, acute lymphoblastic early. The best way to detect the disease - to report any possible signs and symptoms of leukemia doctor immediately. People at increased risk due to hereditary diseases, experts recommend regular medical checkups.

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For the diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the following types of tests in Israel.

History and physical examination

If there are signs of a doctor in Israel wants to get a complete medical history and information on the impact of any risk factors. During the medical examination will pay particular attention to enlarged lymph nodes, bruising or bleeding area, possible signs of infection. Will carefully inspected the skin, the mouth, eyes, liver, and spleen.

Laboratory diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Israel

If there is suspicion of leukemia, samples of blood and bone marrow cells are checked to confirm the diagnosis.

Blood tests

Blood samples are usually taken from a vein.

Performed clinical blood analysis measured the number of different types of cells. In addition, we investigate peripheral blood smear under a microscope. Changes in the amount and in the appearance of the cells to help diagnose leukemia.

The majority of patients are too many immature white blood cells - lymphoblasts which usually do not work as a mature white blood cells and not detectable in the blood, as well as the insufficient number of red blood cells and platelets.

It can be analyzed on the blood coagulation.

Biochemical blood tests are used to diagnose leukemia. They are used to detect disturbances caused by problems with the liver or kidneys because of the proliferation of leukemia cells, or side effects of some chemotherapy drugs.

Even if these tests confirm the suspicion of leukemia are diagnosed after examining samples of bone marrow cells.

Israel The clinic has modern diagnostic equipment, on a permanent basis by upgrading it. Israel is engaged in the development and supply to the world market of medical equipment for the treatment and diagnosis -. CT scanners, scanners, lasers, etc. In addition, the country is the leader in patents for medical equipment.

Bone marrow examination

leukemia diagnosis  Aspirate and biopsy in the diagnosis of leukemia in Israel is generally carried out at one time. Typically, samples are taken from the pelvis of the ilium, in some cases, from the sternum bone or other bone.

In case of aspiration of the patient is lying on his side or stomach. Before injection, a local anesthetic is used. Using a thin hollow needle of the bone marrow doctor removes a small amount of liquid. Possible momentary pain.

Bone marrow biopsies performed immediately after aspiration. By larger needle removes a small piece of bone and bone marrow. These procedures are used for diagnosis of leukemia, and to test the effectiveness of treatment.

In the study, study size, shape and other features of the white blood cells, classify them into specific types. It turns out the percentage of immature lymphocytes. In the diagnosis of leukemia, this figure could be from 20 to 30%. For a healthy person, he is no more than 5%.

In some cases, this research is not enough, and other laboratory tests are used.

Cytochemistry in the diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Israel

In carrying out cytochemical test cells are exposed to special chemical dyes which react only with certain types of leukemia cells. Changing the color of the pathological elements, and it can be seen under a microscope to determine the type of leukemia.

Flow cytometry and immunohistochemistryDiagnosis of acute leukemia

Flow cytometry in diagnosis of leukemia detects certain substances (receptors) on the cell surface, which help determine the type of leukemia. The sample cells are treated with special antibodies that adhere to the cells, if said substances are present on the surface. Then the cells are irradiated with laser, and they become fluorescent. On the measurement and analysis performed by computer equipment.

The immunohistochemical tests and special antibodies are used. But instead of a laser and computer specific cell types are processed in such a way that change color when viewed under a microscope.

These tests can be used for immunophenotyping - method used to accurately determine the type of leukemia. Different species have different lymphocyte antigens (markers) on the surface which may change when the cell matures. Leukemia cells also have the same antigens. Laboratory tests for antigens is an accurate way to diagnose leukemia in Israel.

Cytogenetics in the diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Under a microscope, studying chromosomes in leukemia cells for any changes. Healthy human cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes, each of which has a certain resolution. In some cases, the disease leukemia chromosomal changes can be seen under a microscope.

For example, chromosomes can exchange 2 fragments, so that a portion of one of them is attached to the other. This change is called translocation, and can be seen with a microscope. Most chromosomal mutations in adults are translocations. The most common - between 9 and 22 - is found in one out of four adults.

Information about translocations may be useful to predict the reaction of the human body for treatment. Therefore, the majority of physicians are turning to this type of leukemia diagnosis.

Cytogenetic study usually takes 2 to 3 weeks because the leukemia cells need to grow to their chromosomes can be seen under a microscope. This test is used in the study of bone marrow samples for blood analysis.

However, not all chromosome changes can be seen with a microscope. Other laboratory tests often help to find them.

Hybridization Fluorescence in situ (or method FISH) in the diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Israel clinics

Laboratory diagnosis of leukemiaAnother type of chromosomal test. To do this, use special fluorescent dyes that are attached to specific genes or portions of individual chromosomes. With this method it is possible to detect changes that are visualized in standard tests, as well as those that are too small to be seen by means of conventional cytogenetic analysis.

Fluorescent hybridization is used to study blood samples and bone marrow, sometimes - the lymph nodes. Analysis has high accuracy is required to obtain a result for several days, it identifies specific gene modifications.

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

This is a very sensitive DNA test that detects the slightest genetic changes that can not be seen with a microscope, even if a small number of leukemic cells present in the sample.

Lumbar puncture (spinal tap) in the diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Israeli hospitals

Lumbar puncture reveals leukemia cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) surrounding the brain and spinal cord. Leukemia can spread to these areas, a sample of cerebrospinal fluid is removed for testing.

During the test the patient may be in a position lying on his side or sitting. Doctor relieve your lower back spine. Liquid extracts placing small hollow needle between vertebral bones and the region surrounding the spinal cord.

Also, a lumbar puncture is indicated for administration of chemotherapeutic agents in the cerebrospinal fluid to prevent or treat the spread of leukemia in the area of ​​spinal cord and brain.

A biopsy of the lymph nodediagnosis of leukemia

This type of diagnostics seldom required for diagnosis of leukemia formulation is generally sufficient blood and bone marrow.

During the procedure, the skin is cut to remove all lymph node or part thereof. If the node is located near the surface of the skin, local anesthesia when inside the thorax or abdomen - used general anesthesia. Excisional biopsy involves removal of all the lymph node, incisional - its segment.

Methods of medical imaging in diagnosing acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Israel

These survey methods employ X-rays, ultrasound, magnetic fields, radioactive particles to produce images of internal organs. Since the leukemia does not form a tumor, these methods are not as useful as in other types of cancer.

They are used to detect an infection or other any problems, sometimes - to establish the extent of disease, if there is a suspicion of spread of disease outside of bone marrow and blood.

X-ray methods

Chest X-ray is performed when suggest the presence of infection in the lung, or for diagnostic enlarged lymph nodes.

CT scan

diagnosis of acute leukemiaThis type of diagnosis is a type of X-ray studies. CT produces cross-sectional images of the body. By conventional X-ray is different in that visualizes the state of the soft tissues, for example, internal organs.

CT may designate, if the doctor suspects the presence of leukemic cells, for example, in the spleen. The survey will help to identify the size of the enlarged lymph nodes or any of the bodies.

Can apply the contrast agent, it is administered intravenously drink or by injection.

Sometimes CT is used in a biopsy to determine the exact location, if there is suspicion of an anomaly.

In some cases, CT combined with PET scan order. Before the procedure is introduced into the bloodstream a radioactive substance - fluorodeoxyglucose or FDG (glucose biological analogue) with a low level of radioactivity. For malignant cells characterized by rapid growth, so they absorb large amounts of glucose. Special camera helps form a picture of areas of radioactivity in the body. This procedure is not part of the patient is required with a diagnosis of leukemia.

Magnetic resonance imaging

MRI creates detailed images of soft tissues in the body, using powerful magnets and radio waves. Often use a contrast agent - gadolinium before scanning to enhance detail.

MRI - an indispensable procedure for examination of the brain and spinal cord.

Ultrasound diagnostics

Ultrasound in diagnosing leukemia in Israel can be applied to identify enlarged organs (spleen, kidney, liver) and lymph nodes near the body surface.

bone scan

This type of diagnosis is useful if there are bone pain caused by infection or malignant tumors in bone.

Before the injected radioactive drug accumulating in the affected area, which will be considered by a special type of camera. Detailing in this case is not, to obtain it apply to X-rays, MRI.

Successful treatment begins with accurate and reliable diagnosis. A fairly high rate of leukemia patients are misdiagnosed. for laboratory / clinical research experts in Israel have extensive experience in the diagnosis of leukemia.