Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) - a rare type of cancer, develop at any age but is more common in people older than 65 years.

If you are considering options for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia in Israel, we will help you in this task.

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acute myeloid leukemiaTypically, the synthesis process of blood cells is orderly and controlled. In acute myeloid leukemia, he goes out of control, produced a large number of abnormal cells. This is mainly immature white blood cells, with some of the less common types of AML - immature platelets or red blood cells. They do not function properly. This leads to an increased risk of infections, anemia, bruising due to the shortage of healthy red blood cells and platelets.

Immature cells fill the bone marrow, occupying the space required for the synthesis of healthy blood cells. Some leukemic cells enter the bloodstream and circulate throughout the body.

Causes of acute myeloid leukemia

There are several factors that may increase the risk of developing acute myeloid leukemia. Let us examine them.

irradiation

Exposed to high the People a levels of radiation as with the a of result of accidents in the nuclear on the industry have a Higher likelihood of Developing acute for acute myeloid of leukemia .

Smoking and exposure to chemicals

Many people know that smoking is associated with malignant diseases of the lung, mouth, larynx, but have no idea how it affects the cells that do not come into direct contact with the smoke. Carcinogenic substances in the smoke are absorbed by the lungs and spread through the blood stream in many parts of the body.

As part of the cigarette smoke there is a high concentration of benzene. In very rare cases, the disease develops due to prolonged exposure to this chemical compound. Benzene is a solvent that is used in the rubber, footwear industry and related industries with gasoline, in refineries and chemical plants. He is a part of some adhesives, detergents, paints and art supplies.

Israel has carried out a study aimed at exploring the AML, the development of new protocols of immunotherapy, the use of point-of chemotherapy, vaccination of malignant cells in the treatment of acute leukemia.

Some studies suggest the action of formaldehyde one of the risk factors for AML.

cancer treatment

Sometimes, chemotherapy or radiation therapy can become a cause of acute myeloid leukemia in a few years. Probability increases when certain chemotherapy drugs combined with radiation. This type of leukemia is called the secondary.

Cytostatics called alkylating agents (cyclophosphamide, procarbazine, chlorambucil, melphalan, busulfan), and platinum compounds (cisplatin and carboplatin) associated with an increased risk of AML. Also, inhibitors of topoisomerase II (etoposide, teniposide, mitoxantrone, epirubicin, doxorubicin).

hematopathy

People with certain blood disorders such as myelodysplasia, or myeloproliferative diseases (myelofibrosis, polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia), have an increased chance of developing acute myeloid leukemia.

genetic disorders

Certain genetic diseases - Down's syndrome, primary isolated Fanconi syndrome, Bloom syndrome, ataxia telangiectasia, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, neurofibromatosis type 1, increases the risk of acute myeloid leukemia.

By the uncertain and controversial factors include exposure to electromagnetic fields (living near power lines), and the impact of pesticides and herbicides.

Most often, people get sick in old age to a greater extent the male part of the population. The presence of a family history of a relative with AML increases the risk of disease.

Symptoms of acute myeloid leukemia

Most of the signs of the disease are the consequences of actions leukemic cells in the bone marrow, which makes it unable to produce healthy cells.

Main myeloid leukemia symptoms:

  1. Pallor, fatigue and shortness of breath due to anemia caused by a deficiency of red blood cells.
  2. Frequent infections due to a lack of healthy white blood cells.
  3. Low platelet count causes bruising, heavy periods in women, bleeding gums, nosebleeds, petechial hemorrhages in the skin (petechiae).
  4. Heat and sweating due to infection or leukemia.

Other, less common myeloid leukemia symptoms are caused by an accumulation of leukemic cells in a certain part of the body. Bone pain can be triggered by pressure of blasts in the bone marrow. Focusing them under the skin causes the formation of a bluish-purple areas in the gums - edematous state.

Sometimes it happens that the symptoms of the disease as such was not, and the disease was discovered during a routine blood test.

Signs of acute myeloid leukemia can occur in a few weeks, but most people get sick pretty quickly.

Reliable and accurate diagnosis determines the effectiveness of the treatment. Specialists in laboratory studies in Israeli hospitals have extensive experience and a high level of knowledge. In addition, an important component is a modern diagnostic medical equipment.

Diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia in Israel

Treatment of acute myeloid leukemia in IsraelFirst the doctor queries about general health, past medical problems. Manufactures inspection, checking whether the enlarged lymph nodes, spleen and liver. Performed several blood tests, explores a number of different cells, is searched blasts. One of the renowned experts on the treatment of blood cancer in Israel isDr. Sigal Tavor. Please contact en.thebestmedic.com, Contact this to your doctor.

If the results of the blood tests are abnormal, hematologist extracts a sample of bone marrow. This is an important test, which gives more information about the disease, which is necessary for treatment planning.

Bone marrow biopsy

During the procedure, a sample is taken from the back of the pelvic bone, or occasionally from the breast bone. Before the beginning of its region anesthetized by injection, it may also be offered a sedative, reducing pain or discomfort during the diagnosis. survey duration is about 15-20 minutes, can be done in the House or in the outpatient department.

Sometimes the biopsy is performed, bone marrow extracted segment retaining its structure. In order to take a sample of bone tissue, use a special type of needle.

After the procedure, in place of withdrawal are likely to be bruising and sore for a few days. Then apply mild analgesics.

The obtained sample was examined under a microscope to determine the type of acute myeloid leukemia. Count the number of blasts, conduct other tests to help confirm the diagnosis.

Different types of acute myeloid leukemia associated with certain genetic changes. Therefore, these tests help physicians choose the best treatment for acute myeloid leukemia, and to make a forecast, as the disease will respond.

immunophenotyping

It involves testing of leukemic cells with antibodies in search of specific proteins on their surface. Immunophenotyping helps to identify abnormal type of cell.

cytogenetics

The study of chromosomes. Almost all the cells in our body contain chromosomes, which are located in genes that control the activity of all cells. Leukemia often have a mutation in the structure of chromosomes blasts. Bone marrow cytogenetic test sample will reveal these changes.

Fluorescence in situ hybridization

This analysis is used to find the chromosomal changes that can not be detected by cytogenetic features.

PCR (polymerase chain reaction)

PCP - very sensitive type of diagnosis myeloid leukemia able to find mutations in chromosomes, which can not be identified under a microscope. In addition, it is used after treatment to check the effectiveness.

other studies

There will also be carried out other types of surveys, which will check the condition of the lungs, liver, kidneys and heart. These may include chest X-ray, additional blood tests and echocardiography elekrokardiogrammu.

Medical service «Tlv.Hospital» will assist in the organization of diagnosis and treatment of acute myeloid leukemia in Israel, in the selection of doctors, medical institutions, and domestic support.