antineoplastic drugs The group of so-called blocker or inhibitor of cancer growth. For this type of biologic therapy include:

  • tyrosine kinase inhibitors;
  • proteasome inhibitors;
  • inhibitors MTOR;
  • inhibitors of PI3K (phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase).

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Factors tumor growth

growth factors - chemicals produced by the body to control cell growth. There are many different types of growth factors, and they all work in different ways. Some of them convey information, what kind of cell to become given, particular cells. Other encourage cells to grow and divide; there are those that transmit information when a cell needs to stop growing or die.

Growth factors operate by connecting to receptors on the cell surface. They send a signal into the cell by running a network of complex chemical reactions.

There are a number of different growth factors:

  1. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) - controls the growth of cells.
  2. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) - coordinates angiogenic.
  3. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) - controls the development of blood vessels and cell growth.
  4. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) - responsible for cell growth.

Each growth factor attached to the corresponding receptors on the cell surface to have an impact on it.

Growth factor inhibitors block the factors which give a signal to cancer cells to divide and grow. Scientists are developing a variety of ways to accomplish this:

  • Reduce the content of growth factors in the body.
  • Block growth factor receptors on the cell.
  • Counteract signals within the cell.

Most of these methods work by blocking the signal transmission processes that use cancer cells to start dividing.

Cancer cells have an increased sensitivity to growth factors tumor. So if you have the opportunity to block them, you can stop the growth of certain types of cancer. Scientists develop inhibitors for various different types of growth factors.

Difficulties with are There the classification of types of Different Biological therapies , for They Because often the overlap. Some growth factor inhibitors block the growth of blood vessels in a growing tumor. The same effect is produced monoclonal antibodies.

There are different types of inhibitors can be grouped according to the chemical substances that they block.

Types of cancer growth inhibitors

Antineoplastic - tyrosine kinase inhibitors

tyrosine kinase inhibitors are also referred to as TIC. They block enzymes called tyrosine kinases. These enzymes help to transfer growth signals to cells. Thus prevent the growth and division of cells. It can be blocked by one type of tyrosine kinase or more. ITK that affect the number of kinds of enzymes, called multiingibitorami.

ITC, which are used in medical practice, as well as in clinical trials:

  • Afatinib (Giotrif)
  • Axitinib (Inlyta)
  • Bosutinib (Bosulif)
  • Crizotinib (Xalkori)
  • Dasatinib (Sprycel)
  • Erlotinib (Tarceva)
  • Gefitinib (Iressa)
  • Imatinib (Glivec)
  • Lapatinib (Tyverb)
  • Nilotinib (Tasigna)
  • Pazopanib (Votrient)
  • Regorafenib (Stivarga)
  • Sorafenib (Nexavar)
  • Sunitinib (Sutent)

These drugs are taken in pill or capsule, usually once or twice a day.

Antineoplastic drugs - proteasome inhibitors

Proteasome - tiny structures in all cells, shaped like a barrel. They help to break down proteins, which do not need a cell into smaller parts. These proteins are then used to create new and essential proteins. proteasome inhibitors of the proteasome block the job. This causes the accumulation of unwanted proteins in the cell, leading to her death.

Bortezomib (Velcade) - proteasome inhibitor, which is used in the treatment of melanoma. In the organism it is administered intravenously.

Antineoplastic drugs - inhibitors MTOR

MTOR - a type of protein called protein kinase. It acts on the cells so that they synthesized chemicals called cyclins that promote cell. In addition, they contribute to the synthesis of proteins, cells, provoking the development of new blood vessels that tumors need.

Some types of the protein mTOR simultaneously contribute to the growth of malignant cells and the creation of new blood vessels. Inhibitors of such proteins are innovative drugs that block the growth of cancer. Inhibitors of protein include:

  • Temsirolimus (Torisel)
  • Everolimus (Afinitor)
  • Deforolimus

Antineoplastic drugs - inhibitors of PI3K

PI3K (phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase) - a group of closely related protein kinases. They perform several actions in cells. For example, activate other proteins - for example, mTOR. Activation of PI3K leads to the growth and division of cells, the development of blood vessels, helping to move the cells.

In some types of cancer PI3K constantly activated, which means that the uncontrolled growth of cancer cells. Researchers are developing new treatments that block of PI3K, that stops the growth of cancer cells and leads to their death. This type of inhibitor is currently available only in clinical trials. It needed some time before to make sure that the drug is effective in treating cancer.

Antineoplastic - histone deacetylase inhibitors

histone deacetylase inhibitors are also referred to as HDAC inhibitors or HDIS, inhibitors selective action. They block the action of enzymes that remove acetyl groups from the substance-specific proteins. This stops the growth and division of cancer cells, and sometimes completely destroys them.

Histone deacetylase inhibitors - a new type of growth factor inhibitors. Drugs used in the treatment of cancer and in clinical trials:

  • Vorinostat (Zolinza)
  • Belinostat
  • Panobinostat
  • Entinostat
  • Mocetinostat

Antineoplastic drugs - inhibitors of Hedgehog pathway

These blockers focused on a group of proteins called Hedgehog pathway. In the developing embryo, these proteins send signals that help cells to grow in the right direction and in the right place. This protein also controls the growth of blood vessels and nerves. In adults, the Hedgehog pathway is usually not active. But some people have changes in genes include it. Currently designed blockers Hedgehog pathway, which switch off the protein and stop the growth of cancer.

This type of biological therapy is still relatively new. Vismodegib (Erivedge) - an example of such an inhibitor, involved in clinical trials.

angiogenesis inhibitors

The tumor needs a good blood supply to incoming nutrients, oxygen and remove waste. When it reaches a width of 1-2 mm, it is necessary to grow new blood vessels to increase the amount of required substances entering. Some cancer cells produce a protein called vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). This protein is attached to the receptors on the cells lining the walls of blood vessels within the tumor. These cells are called endothelial. They give impetus to the growth of blood vessels to tumors can grow.

Angiogenesis is the growth of new blood vessels. If you can stop the creation of new blood vessels, reduces the growth of tumor, and sometimes decreases. Angiogenesis inhibitors are directed just to stop the creation of new blood vessels in tumors.

types inigibitorov

There are various drugs that block the growth of blood vessels:

  1. Inhibitors that block growth factor (VEGF) from adhering to the receptors on the cells lining the blood vessels. This stops the blood vessels develop. Thus drugs is bevacizumab (Avastin), which also is a monoclonal antibody.
  2. Inhibitors that block signaling. Some drugs stopped signaling on the growth of VEGF receptors to cells of blood vessels. Such preparations are also called blocker growth factor or tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Sunitinib (Sutent) - a type of CTI blocking growth signals within the blood vessel cells. It is used in the treatment of kidney cancer and a rare type of stomach cancer - stromal tumors.
  3. Inhibitors that affect the transmission of signals between cells. Some drugs act on the chemicals which the cells are used to supply signals to the growth of each other. This can stop the process of angiogenesis. Such preparations are thalidomide and lenalidomide (Revlimid).

Possible side effects of inhibitors of growth factors

All medications can cause side effects, all - different. But there are some common potential undesirable consequences:

  • fatigue;
  • diarrhea;
  • skin rash or discoloration;
  • stomatitis;
  • weakness;
  • loss of appetite;
  • low blood counts;
  • swelling.

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