Astrocytomas - a new growths that develop from glial cells that surround and support neurons. Localization can be any part of the CNS.

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About the disease

astrocytoma treatment Astrocytomas evaluated on a scale of I - IV, depending on how the cells look abnormally under the microscope. They are divided into tumors having a low and a high degree of malignancy. Low-grade astrocytomas are usually localized (have metastasis), for their characteristic slow growth. Tumors with a high degree of malignancy have a high rate of development and require particular course of therapy. Basically astrocytoma in children - low-grade, in adults - high grade.

Types of astrocytomas:

  1. Hairlike (piloidnaya, pilocytic) astrocytoma, it is classified as Class I. It usually remains within the limits of the original outbreak, does not give metastases. It is characterized by the most favorable prognosis of all astrocytomas. Lesser-known species belonging to class I - desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma and cerebellum. Mainly occurs in the cerebellum, the area of ​​the optic nerve. Mainly affects children and adolescents, accounting for 2% of all cases.
  2. Diffuse astrocytoma (astrocytoma, low grade or class II). Types: fibrillar, protoplasmic, gemistotsitarnaya astrocytomas and mixed (eg, oligoastrocytoma). They have a tendency to spread to the surrounding tissues, and grow relatively slowly. Most often they are diagnosed in adults in the age group - 20-40 years.
  3. Anaplastic astrocytoma III has the degree of malignancy. Suffice rare tumor require more aggressive treatment than benign hairlike astrocytoma. Mainly occurs in people in the age group 30-50 years is 4% of all brain tumors.
  4. Grade IV astrocytoma is also called glioblastoma (glioblastoma multiforme). It is divided into primary and secondary. Primary astrocytoma very aggressive, the most common form of the disease. The more common in adults aged 50-80 years, more often - in men, accounting for 23% of all cases.
  5. Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma located in the brain ventricles, the occurrence of its associated with tuberous sclerosis.

descriptions astrocytomas

Pilocytic astrocytoma has the shape of the pouches filled with liquid (cyst), or it may be enclosed in a cyst. Despite the fact that it is usually slow growing, it can reach very large sizes.

Diffuse astrocytomas contain microcysts and slizistopodobnuyu liquid. They are grouped by their appearance and behavior of cells.

Anaplastic astrocytoma tentacle has projections that grow in the surrounding tissue, which hinders their complete removal during surgery.

Glioblastoma may include cystic material, calcareous deposits, blood vessels, and / or a mixed cell.

Causes of brain astrocytoma

The reasons most astrocytomas are not known. Researchers as risk factors referred to:

  • genetic and immunological disorders;
  • environmental factors (exposure to UV rays, certain chemicals, ionizing radiation);
  • diet;
  • stress and others.

Constantly conducts fundamental research to find out more about the risk factors that lead to the development of cancer.

In most cases, astrocytomas associated with certain genetic disorders - Turco syndrome, neurofibromatosis type I, Ollier's disease, syndrome Li-Fraumeni.

Symptoms of brain astrocytoma

astrocytoma treatment in IsraelSigns I and II astrocytomas grade are barely perceptible, because the brain is able to adapt to the presence of a slowly growing tumor. Manifestations III and IV tumors degree can be sudden and intense.

The most common early symptoms of astrocytomas:

  • high intracranial pressure;
  • fatigue and depression.
  • changes in vision;
  • nausea;
  • vomiting;
  • convulsions;
  • memory loss;
  • headache;
  • changes in behavior.

Other symptoms caused by the quantity and localization astrocytomas. It intervenes in the brain that can cause seizures, difficulty with speech, loss of balance, weakness, paralysis, loss of sensation on one side of the body.

Desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma - a rare tumor, whose symptoms include increased head size, convulsions.

In diffuse astrocytomas often have headaches. There may be hydrocephalus, focal neurological symptoms, including changes in personality.

Related disorders

Symptoms of these diseases can mimic symptoms of astrocytomas. The comparison may be useful for differential diagnosis:

  1. Motor neuron disease - a group of neuromuscular disorders characterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons (nerve cells that control the movement and reflex). Signs of such disorders may include muscle weakness, spasms and excessive reflections.
  2. Multiple sclerosis - a chronic disease of the brain and spinal cord. Randomly generated small lesion - plaque. These lesions are dissolved myelin, a fatty substance which forms a sheath around the nerve cells (neurons) and conducts nerve impulses. Astrocytes grow and harden in the lesions, forming scars. The destruction of the myelin sheath creates a variety of neurological symptoms that may include speech disorders, vision; abnormal sensations or numbness of the skin; difficulty with walking, the process of urinating and defecating.


Pilocytic astrocytoma mainly diagnosed in children and young adults. Other types are more likely to affect the male population, as well as persons aged 45 years and older.

Diagnosis of brain astrocytoma in Israel

Astrocytoma diagnosis based on a careful clinical examination, history and specialized tests (blood tests, neuroimaging techniques and so on.).

neuroimaging techniques - CT and MRI of the brain to help estimate the size of the tumor, its location and other factors. In diffuse astrocytoma prefer MRI, CT not clearly visualize the tumor.

Biopsy and microscopic examination of the tumor tissue allows you to set the type of astrocytoma and its class (graduation).

astrocytoma treatment in Israel

astrocytoma treatment in Israel, the pricesThe treatment program is determined by the following factors:

  • the magnitude and location of tumors;
  • the presence or absence of secondary lesions;
  • the therapy;
  • overall health.

Treatment piloidnoy astrocytoma in Israel

These tumors are often treated only with surgery. Astrocytoma is available, it successfully removed without causing serious damage to other parts of brain. After surgical intervention may be offered radiotherapy to adults and older children, if there are suspicions that may remain tumor cells. Or if the patient noticed that her symptoms reappear. In some cases, the irradiation can be recommended as a primary treatment.

Chemotherapy can be administered after exposure to the destruction of the surviving cells, or is carried out in the same time as radiotherapy. In the treatment of astrocytoma in Israel very young children prescribe chemotherapy to avoid damage to the developing brain. Neurooncology determines the type of the drug on the basis of the degree of astrocytoma, the treatment and current health status.

Astrocytoma grade I sometimes progresses further, so the scan within the follow-up is necessary to detect re-growth.

Treatment of diffuse astrocytoma in Israel

The program of therapy due to the size and location of the tumor. Diffuse astrocytoma can be completely removed by surgery, if it is available. Thereafter, only require a subsequent scan. For adults and older children may be offered radiotherapy. Irradiation is also used in an inoperable astrocytoma.

Treatment of anaplastic astrocytoma in Israel

The first step - it's an operation. Then applied radiotherapy. Often then turn to chemotherapy, as well as for recurrent tumors. If surgery is impossible, can be proposed radiation and cytostatic treatment.

The following types of radiation therapy: traditional external beam radiation therapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, a conformal radiation therapy. For a particular tumor oncologist selects the optimum variant radiotherapy.

Chemotherapy drugs used in the treatment of astrocytoma in Israel, carmustine, lomustine, procarbazine, cisplatin and temozolomide. Biodegradable Gliadel wafer implanted tumors after resection. At this stage, cerebral astrocytoma usually recurs so therapy will depend on the gradation. FDA approved temozolomide for the treatment of adult patients with anaplastic astrocytoma when no response to other forms of therapy.

astrocytoma treatment in Israel IV grade

astrocytoma treatmentFirst, the operation is carried out to remove the maximum possible volume of the tumor. Surgery is almost always accompanied by radiation. Chemotherapy is often given at the same time as radiation therapy.

Recurrent astrocytoma treated with additional operations and other types of radiation therapy and other cytotoxic drugs, as well as new approaches to the treatment of tumors are used. In addition, Gliadel is used as an adjunct to surgery and radiation therapy. Plates formulation was put in resected tumor cavity, where they release the drug for 2-3 weeks.

Surgery and treatment of astrocytoma in Israel

The operation is the initial treatment for most brain astrocytomas, regardless of the benign or malignant nature. Often this is the preferred method when the tumor can be removed without any unnecessary risk of neurological damage.

Surgery is used:

  • To take a sample to establish an accurate diagnosis.
  • Resect the maximum amount of tumor to alleviate the symptoms caused by astrocytoma, or reduce the amount of tumors to radiotherapy or cytotoxic drugs.
  • Add implant to chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
  • Eliminate seizures, which provoked the tumor and difficult to control.

types of operations

cerebral astrocytoma may be removed by means of open access - craniotomy or craniotomy. When a patient has symptoms that are either life-threatening or significantly impair its quality, craniotomy offer as a first treatment procedure. Even partial tumor removal can alleviate the symptoms and improve the efficiency of tumor therapy residues. Located in a remote place and close to the localization of the most important structures of the brain - is a contraindication to surgery because it can lead to irreparable damage. Also, the operation can not be performed if the patient is healthy enough to postpone surgery.

The development of new medical imaging techniques eliminated the absolute need for surgical biopsy. The possibility of CT scanning and MRI with contrast allows a diagnosis of benign or malignant tumor without taking a tissue sample.

For the treatment of astrocytoma in Israel carried out the operation with the use of a powerful microscope, which allows to increase the operating field. New technologies, including intraoperative neuronavigation makes it possible to visualize the degree of resection of tumor on the computer screen during operation. This avoids damage to important brain structures.

Ultrasonic aspiration and application of polymeric plates

Instead of a scalpel to remove astrocytomas are also used ultrasound aspiration. Ultrasonic waves tumor fragment, then it is extracted segments. When a tumor resected, can be applied biodegradable Gliadel wafer, which release the chemotherapeutic agents for a long time.

Potential common risks common to all types of operations:

  • the development of infection;
  • bleeding;
  • blood clots;
  • pneumonia;
  • increased blood pressure.

Specific risks associated with the operation to remove a brain tumor:

  • convulsions;
  • weakness;
  • problems with coordination;
  • impaired memory and cognitive abilities;
  • drain cerebrospinal fluid;
  • meningitis;
  • brain edema;
  • stroke;
  • accumulation of fluid in the brain;
  • coma;
  • death.

Recovery depends on the time:

  • the type of operation;
  • parts of the brain, where the tumor has been located;
  • areas of the brain affected by the surgery;
  • the patient's age and health status.

Radiation therapy in the treatment of astrocytoma in Israel

The main objective of this method - to destroy or stop the growth of tumors. Radiation affects both the tumor cells and the healthy. However, as the applicable standard dose, healthy cells to regenerate, unlike malignant. Radiotherapy continues, an increasing number of pathological cell dies. The tumor shrinks, the dead cells are destroyed and disposed of by the immune system.

The effectiveness of radiation treatment astrocytoma depends on several factors - the type and size of tumors.

Radiation therapy is applied after partial or complete removal of astrocytoma. When a tumor resected, some microscopic cells may remain. Radiation is directed to their destruction.

Radiotherapy is performed if the tumor can not be removed by surgery, to relieve symptoms.

Irradiation can be assigned to, during, or after chemotherapy, or with drugs that make tumor cells more sensitive to radiation. Standard radiation therapy schedule - once a day, on weekdays, from two to seven weeks.

Potential side effects:

  • fatigue;
  • alopecia;
  • changes of the skin;
  • edema;
  • nausea;
  • decreased libido;
  • blood clots.

astrocytoma treatment in Israel, stereotactic radiosurgery

astrocytoma treatmentStereotactic radiosurgery - a special form of radiation therapy, non-invasive method of therapy.

Radiation or kills tumor cells or inhibits their ability to grow. However, radiation affects both cancer cells and the healthy. For this reason, scientists have developed a stereotactic radiosurgery - a special type of radiation that can accurately focus the high-dose X-rays to take them to a localized area of ​​the brain.

Radiosurgery is used for the treatment of small tumors benign and malignant nature.

Possible adverse effects include nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and headaches. Some people have no side effects or are present in small quantities.

Steroids in the treatment of astrocytoma in Israel

Steroids are often used to reduce the accumulation of fluid around the tumor, or neoplasm provoked by other procedures. Steroids - are natural hormones. Patients with brain tumor is prescribed in Israeli hospitals corticosteroids - hormones produced by the adrenal glands. They differ from the anabolic steroids used by athletes to increase muscle mass.

Steroids can temporarily relieve the symptoms of astrocytomas (such as edema), improve the neurologic symptoms, elevate mood, increase appetite.

Steroids for the treatment of astrocytomas in Israel administered before, during or after surgery. They are recommended after diagnosis when exhibit swelling MRI, or if the tumor exerts pressure on the brain. Steroids are also used for the treatment of edema caused by radiotherapy.

For people with recurrent or metastatic astrocytoma steroids improve quality of life by reducing symptoms. Increased level of activity, ability to move, communicate and interact with others.

Basically astrocytoma when steroids are administered orally. The dose may be increased or decreased depending on the patient's response to treatment. To protect the stomach steroids is recommended to take with food or milk. Your doctor may prescribe a daily antacid. Steroids stopped gradually.

Chemotherapy in the treatment of astrocytoma in Israel

Chemotherapy in the treatment of astrocytomaChemotherapy is usually used for the treatment of malignant tumors, but also it can be used for the treatment of benign astrocytomas.

The main objective of the treatment of astrocytoma in Israel - to stop tumor growth. Two types of chemotherapy drugs.

1.Tsitostaticheskie means warning cell multiplication process. This angiogenesis inhibitors, preventing the development of blood vessels in the tumor. And inhibitors of growth factors which inhibit proteins that function as growth promoters.

2.Tsitotoksicheskie drugs that artificially activate the process of cell death:

  • I alkylating agents.
  • Antimetabolites.
  • Antitumor antibiotics.
  • Hormones.
  • Mitotic inhibitors.
  • Steroids.

Chemotherapy drugs are delivered to tumor cells by using one of two methods:

  1. Systemic delivery. Drugs enter the blood, cross the blood-brain barrier and enter the tumor cells. These cytotoxic agents are administered in an artery, vein, muscle, subcutaneously or orally.
  2. Local delivery. Formulations placed near the tumor, within the area of ​​tumor growth. The task - to increase the concentration of the drug at the site of the neoplasm.

prices for treatment in Israel

Astrocytoma in each patient is treated individually. After a thorough diagnosis of the doctor prescribes a course of therapy. It can enter a number of different procedures, depending on the complexity of the case. To be certain of the cost of treatment, please call or send a request. Below is an exemplary price.

  1. Consultation of the oncologist, neurosurgeon from $ 560
  2. MRT from $ 1470
  3. Blood tests - $ 800
  4. Craniotomy - an operation to remove a brain tumor (the full cost of the program) - $ 35790

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