Radiation therapy of brain tumors in IsraelRadiotherapy in the treatment of malignant disease uses ionizing radiation. The main indications in the diagnosis -a brain tumor :

  1. No possibility of surgery. Irradiation is then used as the primary therapy.
  2. After surgeryfor the treatment of tumors which have not been fully removed; to destroy pathological cells preserved; to reduce the chance of the disease returning.
  3. Recurrent brain tumors.
  4. Control symptoms in the later stages of the disease.

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External beam radiotherapy of brain tumors

When exposed to an external special equipment directs the radiation dose to the malignant neoplasms and some of the adjacent tissues.

Modern technologies, which are used in Israeli hospitals, enable physicians to accurately set the processing area, the most sparing healthy tissue situated near.

Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy of brain tumors (3D CRT)

The 3D-CRT radiation oncologist uses CT or MRI with a view to reliably identify the location and form of malignancy. Then, a radiation beams from different directions and from all angles and direct them to the tumor.

Intensity modulated radiotherapy of brain tumors (IMRT)

IMRT - type of conformal radiotherapy. In addition to education and targeting the radiation beams is regulated by their intensity. With this capability, reduced radiation dose-sensitive parts of the brain - the optic nerve, brain stem, pituitary, providing a full dose of the tumor. Thus, IMRT precisely shapes radiation beams and adjusts the intensity of exposure to different segments.

The conformal proton beam therapy of brain tumors

This type of radiation therapy is similar to the 3D-CRT, but uses proton beams instead of X-rays. Latest release energy before and after they hit the target. Proton beams are different in that they release most of the energy reaching the tumor, while minimizing damage to healthy tissue.

The cost of this equipment is very high, so basically Israeli private clinics provide the possibility of such treatment.

Cancer Treatment in Israel - a combination of comprehensive and individual approach. Since the patient has a team of highly qualified professionals, on the one hand. On the other, Israel is developing an innovative approach to treatment - personalized oncology. Thanks to new diagnostic tests individually selected treatment methods taking into account the biological characteristics of the tumor.

Stereotactic radiotherapy of brain tumors

This type of radiotherapy provides very accurate proportions of external radiation to the tumor and surrounding tissue. CT and MRI are used to create 3-dimensional images of the brain tumors and surrounding tissue intact. This information is activated for the purpose of treatment planning. Specialized computer program directs radiation to the tumor. The procedure requires special training and equipment.

There are two ways this type of treatment in Israeli medical institutions:

  1. Stereotactic radiosurgery provides a high tumor dose radiation (so-called fraction). This treatment does not require surgery - there are no incisions and no tissue is removed. This type of therapy is prescribed for small tumors (less than 4 cm in diameter). It is also sometimes performed for tumors of small size, which had previously been exposed to radiotherapy, to give an extra dose of radiation and destroy the surviving malignant cells.
  2. Stereotactic radiosurgery similar to radiotherapy, but it gives a smaller radiation dose over several treatment sessions (several fractions applicable) until the total dose to be ensured.

Carrying out this kind of treatment in Israel to provide a modified linear accelerator, or through specialized equipment (cyber knife or gamma knife).

  1. Gamma knife 200 accurately focuses the beams of gamma radiation (usually radioactive cobalt) to the tumor. The irradiation is delivered to the point where the beams intersect. Typically, this is a high dose.
  2. Cyber-knife type is a linear accelerator which directs the robotic system. Several X-ray cameras and computers are used to track the position of a person. When the movements of the patient robotic system capable of regulating the linear accelerator delivering radiation to the tumor. The indications for treatment are small, local malignancy. It does not require the use of a stereotactic frame, but other devices immobilization or special markers are involved.

Israel clinics have new medical technologies that increase the effectiveness of radiation therapy and reduce side effects. Components of successful treatment - professionalism of doctors, modern expensive equipment for diagnosis and treatment, the use of effective tools (drugs and procedures) to control the adverse effects of therapy.

Irradiation of the whole brain radiotherapy or craniospinal in Israel

If the tumor has spread to the lining of the brain, it can be carried out irradiation of the whole body. Some tumors such as medulloblastoma, have a tendency to spread to their relevance this type of radiotherapy. Sometimes this type of treatment prescribed to prevent the proliferation of the disease within the body.

Potential adverse effects of radiotherapy of brain tumors

On the intensity and the appearance of undesired phenomena affect the quantity of treatment tumors, dose schedule and therapy.

  1. Fatigue - a common consequence of treatment. The reasons for its occurrence include poor appetite, anemia, toxic substances in the body due to the dying cancer cells. The healing process of the organism is involved a large amount of energy, which also affects the body.
  2. On the scalp may occur itching, dryness, redness, sensitivity due to external radiation therapy of brain tumors. Doctors in detail instruct the patient's skin care products.
  3. Thinning or loss of hair observed 2-3 weeks after initiation of therapy, an area where radiation is directed. The reason is the impact of radiation on the hair follicles. Lower doses usually cause temporary hair loss, but higher can cause permanent side effects. Hair grows normally after 3-6 months after the end of irradiation.
  4. sleepiness syndrome includes symptoms group - drowsiness, confusion, fatigue, lack of energy, a light headache. It occurs after about 4-12 weeks after completion of radiotherapy of brain tumors and can last for 2-8 weeks.
  5. brain edema may be caused by radiation or high dose of the tumor itself. This provokes an increase in intracranial pressure. Some symptoms include headache, nausea and vomiting, muscle weakness, impaired memory and concentration, seizures. To reduce the swelling and alleviate the condition prescribed corticosteroids - prednisone or dexamethasone. Then gradually reduce the dose data of medicines.
  6. Headache can be due to swelling around the tumor, which was caused by radiation therapy. It is usually noted within the first few days of treatment. Doctors determined that provokes this side effect and decide whether or not to temporarily stop treatment, to correct the condition with medication or use analgesics.
  7. Seizures sometimes arise in radiation therapy of brain tumors. Their cause abnormal electrical signals. Symptoms include seizures unusual odors or tastes, hallucinations, muscle twitching, or limbs, tongue biting, drooling, loss of control over the bladder, loss and confusion. To control this condition doctors use anticonvulsants - phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproic acid. There are regular blood tests, check the level of anticonvulsant in your blood.
  8. Nausea and vomiting in some cases occur after 1-2 weeks after radiotherapy. The reason may be brain edema. Doctors prescribe anti-emetics.
  9. If the ear falls in the treatment zone, there may be pain or difficulty hearing. These adverse symptoms can be caused by irritation of the solidified earwax, damage middle or inner ear. Doctors sometimes prescribe ear drops. It is important to protect the ears from the sun and exposure to cold.
  10. The consequence of radiotherapy of brain tumors may be neurological changes: disorders of cognitive functions, concentration; depression, mood swings or irritability; short or long term memory loss; problems with speech; impaired balance and coordination. As the radiation will affect the mental or emotional functions are actually unknown. Psychologist or neurologist can evaluate the condition of the person and to suggest methods or drugs to help cope with these disorders.
  11. Radiation therapy of brain tumors may cause damage to one or more cranial nerves, there are 12 pairs of them. These nerves are involved in the processes of sight, smell, hearing, taste and balance. They affect the feel and control the muscles of the face, tongue, throat and shoulders. Doctors in Israeli hospitals conduct a neurological examination to check the functions of the nervous system and identify any changes. These problems are often more late effects of radiation.
  12. Hormone deficiency is also referred to as late adverse effects of treatment. Irradiation of the brain in the area around the pituitary or hypothalamus can affect the amount of hormones produced in the body. This may be the sex hormones, growth hormones, thyroid and adrenal glands. The doctors in the treatment of hormone levels checked and prescribe substitution drugs, if necessary.
  13. Radiation necrosis - is an area of ​​dead tissue which can occur after radiation therapy of brain tumors. However, sometimes no symptoms at 1-2 years after irradiation. These characteristics, like increased intracranial pressure include headache, drowsiness, long or short-term memory loss, personality changes, seizures. To detect the difference between the ray and relapse tumor necrosis used methods of imaging diagnosis such as CT or MRI. Sometimes a biopsy is required. Necrosis is often exacerbated by the passage of time. Treatment options include: use of corticosteroids to control symptoms and reduce intracranial pressure, dexamethasone or carrying out surgery to resection of the dead bodies.
  14. Leykoentsefalopapiya more common after chemotherapy, but sometimes occur after radiation therapy of brain tumors. Usually it affects white matter of the brain, which contains nerve cells coated with myelin (a substance accelerating nerve signals and acts as an insulator). When leukoencephalopathy occurs damage or destruction of the myelin sheath in the treatment area. Among its symptoms point to the lack of energy, inability to coordinate movement, numbness, muscle spasms, muscle weakness or paralysis, seizures. For treatment options leukoencephalopathy include anticonvulsants, corticosteroids, physiotherapy.

Despite the possibility of serious side effects, the benefits of therapy outweigh the risks. Treatment is aimed at reducing the malignancy to control the disease and alleviate the clinical manifestations. The bulk of the adverse effects controlled by medication and other therapies. Therefore it is extremely important the professionalism of doctors, in order to minimize the negative effects.

Why choose radiotherapy of brain tumors in Israel?

  1. The presence of modern equipment for treatment. For example, the Institute has Assuta Hospital radiotherapy and radiosurgery.
  2. The use of innovations and approaches to treatment.
  3. Required qualifications and training of doctors - oncologists, radiologists, who are constantly improving their level of interning abroad.

Medical service «Tlv.Hospital» is ready to render assistance in choosing doctors, the best clinics, the organization fully in all process of diagnosis, treatment and stay in Israel.

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