Chemotherapy - a method of treating cancer using cytotoxic drugs, the effect of which prevents the development of malignant cells.

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Chemotherapy for lung cancer in Israel

+ chemotherapy in lung cancerThe hospitals in the country a multidisciplinary team of doctors interact with patients, discussing and agreeing a plan of treatment. In the process of planning and carrying out of chemotherapy following experts participate lung cancer:

  1. Oncologist specializes in the treatment of malignant diseases using cytostatics and other anticancer drugs. He'll tell you that will be a therapy, and potential adverse consequences. He will appoint chemotherapy and verify the effectiveness of the course.
  2. Clinical Oncologist treats disease by radiotherapy, chemotherapy and other anticancer drugs. During the entire course of the patient will meet with him several times. Before treatment, the doctor will give information on the treatment, identify possible side effects. During and after treatment will verify the results. If there are any problems, organize additional meetings.
  3. The nurses in the oncology department possess expert knowledge about cancer and high expertise in chemotherapy.
  4. Radiologist specializes in the interpretation of the scan results. It helps to plan treatment.
  5. Pharmacists - experts chemotherapy drugs and other medicines. They work together with the team.
  6. Nutritionist advises if there are problems with reception food and drinks.
  7. palliative care team is working on the control of disease symptoms, side effects.
  8. Physiotherapist required number of patients. For example, it provides information on the exercises to prevent muscle tension and joint stiffness.

Preparing for Chemotherapy

The oncologist tells the patient what tests are required before treatment with cytotoxic agents, whether other drugs are needed.

The clinic nurse will measure the height and weight. This information the doctor uses to choose the correct dose of medication.

Some cytotoxic agents may affect the organs - heart, or kidneys. Therefore, the required tests to check how well the functioning of these bodies.

dental check will be recommended. Since dental treatment during chemotherapy will be more difficult because the patient at greater risk of infection.

Also, the patient is losing blood tests.

A few points that you should pay attention before starting chemotherapy:

  • Receiving other medicines, dietary supplements. Oncologist must be reported on the use of any medication prescription and non-prescription dietary supplements. Some vitamins and supplements may interact with cytostatics, reduce the effectiveness of chemotherapy treatments for lung cancer.
  • Fertility. Chemotherapy drugs can affect the ability to conceive a child, both men and women. If it concerned a patient prior to treatment is necessary to discuss this issue with your doctor. It is possible to save the sperm or eggs to use later.

The patient can help himself to make it easier to cope with a course of chemotherapy for lung cancer?

  1. People often talk about the need for a positive attitude. This is not to be cheerful and happy all the time. When a person is coping with a serious illness, it is normal to feel anxiety, depression. Understanding and recognition of the fact that there will be days when people will feel unhappy, is part of the fight against cancer.
  2. Search for information. Feel more control help information about the disease and the side effects of chemotherapy for lung cancer. A person may have questions about the effect of treatment on the disease and the impact on life in general. Obtain information and answers to these questions can help reduce anxiety.
  3. Keeping a journal or blog. Will benefit diary, journal or blog chemotherapy treatments for lung cancer. This can be of practical use, but also allows to express feelings. If you are recorded side effects, this information is important to inform the doctor. it will also help see the changes in the effects of different drugs. With this kind of information is often possible to reduce side effects.
  4. Exercise stress. Performing simple exercises, such as walking, give more energy and reduce stress. When the chemotherapy is over, it will help to recover faster and reduce the risk of certain side effects later.

Where is chemotherapy?

Intravenous chemotherapy is carried out in a specialist unit. Before the procedure, a nurse will take blood tests to monitor the side effects.

The procedure for treatment can take from an hour to several hours. Nurses will try to keep expectations to a minimum. You can take some things to pass the time and feel more comfortable:

  • soft blanket, slippers, etc .;
  • MP3-player - listen to music for relaxation, recreation and visualization;
  • something to read - newspapers, magazines, books, e-books;
  • delicious snacks;
  • knitting, cards and so forth.

After chemotherapy, the nurse can give medication to take them home, or a prescription for hospital pharmacy. Perhaps it antiemetic drugs, steroids or chemotherapy.

Some therapy sessions are more complex, which means the need to stay in the hospital during treatment.

Chemotherapy is non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

In the treatment of NSCLC, this type of therapy is sometimes recommended:

  • after the operation at an early stage to reduce the probability of return;
  • prior to surgery it helps to reduce the size of tumors;
  • before, after or in conjunction with irradiation;
  • relieve symptoms, if there is no surgical treatment opportunities for locally advanced or metastatic lung cancer.

Lung cancer chemotherapy after surgery

At the initial stage of the disease after treatment with cytostatics operation reduces the risk of reversion. The doctor tells the patient beforehand about the benefits and risks of chemotherapy. Drugs may cause unwanted effects. Treatment usually works better in patients in good physical shape. If a person is healthy enough for chemotherapy, the treatment lasts for 8 weeks after surgery.

of chemotherapy schemes provide a greater effect than the individual drugs. Doctors usually combines cisplatin or carboplatin with one of the drugs:

  • vinorelbine;
  • gemcitabine;
  • Paclitaxel (Taxol)
  • Docetaxel (Taxotere)
  • doxorubicin
  • etoposide;
  • pemetrexed

How is chemotherapy?

Drugs administered by injection (i.v.) or more rarely take into tablets. Each session (cycle) lasts for a certain number of days, followed by a period of rest for several weeks. Response of the organism and the type of cancer affecting the determination of the number of cycles.

So, in the first case, the treatment is done on an outpatient basis, in the department of the clinic, in the second - at home. Sometimes a few nights a patient spends in the hospital.

chemotherapy drugs in lung cancer NSCLC

Most often used in the treatment of NSCLC:

  • cisplatin
  • carboplatin
  • gemcitabine (Gemzar®)
  • vinorelbine (Navelbine®)
  • Paclitaxel (Taxol ™)
  • docetaxel (Taxotere ™)
  • pemetrexed (Alimta®).

Various types of NSCLC are treated by one drug or a combination thereof.

Chemotherapy and radiation therapy

The appointment of cytostatics before or after radiotherapy in some cases, helps to get rid of early stage NSCLC, when there is a contraindication to surgery.

Metastatic NSCLC and these techniques sometimes prolong life, even if you can not completely get rid of the cancer. If the patient is healthy enough, your doctor may suggest combined treatment - chemoradiotherapy - as the best way to control the disease.

Chemotherapy for locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC

Locally advanced lung cancer means that the tumor process hit the surrounding tissue and nearby lymph nodes. Metastatic lesions indicative of other organs or lymph nodes in other parts of the body. Chemotherapy can reduce or slow the growth of both one and the other process. It also helps to control the symptoms of the disease.

The physician usually offers treatment with cisplatin or carboplatin in combination with one of the following drugs in chemotherapy of lung cancer:

  • Pemetrexed (Alimta)
  • Vinorelbine (Navelbine)
  • Gemcitabine (Gemzar)
  • Vinorelbine (Navelbine)
  • Docetaxel (Taxotere)

If used cisplatin or pemetrexed, and malignancy decreased or stopped growing, your doctor may recommend the continuation pemetrexed therapy alone. This treatment is called pemetrexed maintenance therapy.

As the disease continues to grow during chemotherapy, the oncologist may recommend docetaxel (Taxotere), or make other changes.

If cancer cells have specific proteins can be effective targeted therapy - erlotinib (Tarceva), gefitinib (Iressa) or krizotinib (crizotinib, Xalkori). Apply one of the drugs.

The physician will discuss in detail the possible risks and benefits of further treatment. This therapy does not help everyone. Much depends on how well the patient whether he will be able to cope with any side effects. Treatment of lung cancer with chemotherapy in Israel engaged Dr. Irina Stefanski and Julia Greenberg . They use the latest methods and drugs for lung cancer therapy.

Controlling symptoms of lung cancer

Sometimes develop new symptoms of the disease - shortness of breath or cough. This may be due to the occurrence of secondary foci of disease, but also to other causes. For example, some cancer cells produce hormones that can disrupt the chemical balance of the body. If there are new symptoms, you must immediately inform your doctor.

Chemotherapy eases symptoms of the disease such as cough, shortness of breath, pain, and hemoptysis.

  • Shortness of breath can be a symptom of anxiety for patients with this diagnosis. There are treatments and exercises that can relieve it, or control. It can be a variety of drugs, additional therapies, breathing techniques, relaxation.
  • About 80% of lung cancer patients (8 of 10) suffering from a cough. There are ways to alleviate the condition. These include radiation therapy, treatment with cytostatic agents, analgesics.

Chemotherapy of small cell lung cancer in Israel

SCLC often responds well to chemotherapy - this is the main method of treatment. At the time of diagnosis of cancer is already metastatic. Also, chemotherapy is used in palliative purposes. cytostatic treatment prolongs life with fewer symptoms.

Chemotherapy drugs circulate through the bloodstream of all the body, reach tumors and secondary cells which have broken away from the primary lesion and not yet reached the tumor size. Such microscopic spread is often the initial phases of the development of SCLC.

Chemotherapy may be offered as a separate and the basic method, either before or after radiotherapy or simultaneously. If surgery is recommended in the initial stages of SCLC, the doctor may suggest a course of treatment with cytostatics before or after surgery.

Chemotherapy Intravenous can be performed in the outpatient department. If the drugs are in tablet, they can take home. Sometimes it is necessary to spend a night or two in the hospital. Each session includes several days followed by a period of rest for several weeks - so-called cycle of treatment. Their number is determined depending on the reaction body. Basically therapy is conducted every 3-4 weeks. The choice affects the number of cycles:

  • What drugs are used;
  • the type of lung cancer;
  • effectiveness of therapy;
  • as the organism to cope with the undesirable consequences of treatment.

Generally 4-6 treatments is recommended. A full course of chemotherapy for lung cancer takes three - six months.

If the treatment task - to control the symptoms, the patient should feel better. The physician monitors the effectiveness of chemotherapy by monitoring the symptoms of the disease. Also the scanning.

If treatment effectively, the patient will continue it when not - will be offered a move to another option.

Oncologist is always notified if the patient receives additional supplements, because some of them may reduce the effect of chemotherapy. It is also important to report the appointment of additional or alternative therapies.

chemotherapy drugs with small cell lung cancer

The most common treatment for small cell lung cancer used cisplatin or carboplatin, often in combination with etoposide.

  • EP - Cisplatin and etoposide
  • Carboplatin, and etoposide
  • GemCarbo (gemcitabine and carboplatin)

SCLC, mainly responds well to this treatment. But researchers continue to test other schemes to see if they can improve results, reduce side effects.

There is also used a lot of different combinations. Clinical trials have confirmed the effectiveness of them about the same.

If small cell lung cancer comes back after treatment, chemotherapy may be offered again. Doctors suggest preparations that were treated, depending on how the body's response to them, and how much time has passed after the end of therapy.

Other chemotherapy regimens in lung cancer, which are sometimes used in this situation:

  • doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide and etoposide (known as ACE);
  • cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and vincristine (Oncovin ®) (CAV).
  • CAVE -CAV plus etoposide

In cases where there is no possibility to apply the CAV or ACE, used topotecan intravenously or in the form of capsules.

Possible effects of chemotherapy in lung cancer

Cytotoxic drugs to kill cancer cells that have the ability to divide rapidly. However, some normal cells also have the ability to - blood cells, hair, mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract, nails. Unlike malignant, they can recover, for that doctors make a break of a few weeks during cytostatic treatment. The body overcome the effects of therapy.

Treatment has different effects on people. The doctor will explain possible side effects. In some patients, the side effects are severe, a number - no. Many continue to live a normal life, others - feel very tired, move slowly. Most of the undesirable effects of chemotherapy takes place when the treatment ends.

It is important to remember that different chemotherapy drugs cause different side effects.

  1. Low levels of blood cells . Chemotherapy can reduce the number of erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets. This means that the patient: it will be susceptible to infection; will feel tired more than usual; appear susceptibility to bleeding. If developing temperature is 38 ° C, there is suspicion of infection, you should immediately consult a doctor. Probably need urgent treatment with antibiotics. It is important to stay away from people who suffer from infectious diseases during chemotherapy. Should avoid crowded places, such as public transport.
  2. Feeling tired . Some patients are able to exercise during treatment with cytostatics much of a normal life, but many feel that they are very tired. Further treatment is likely to exacerbate this condition. Fatigue may persist for several months after chemotherapy for lung cancer. How quickly a person can return to normal depends on: the general state of health; dose therapy; the presence of any other treatments.
  3. Nausea . It is a common consequence of chemotherapy of lung cancer. Some drugs cause this effect in a mild form, while others - in the expression. Nausea and vomiting successfully controlled with anti-nausea medication. About this symptom should be reported to your doctor. If the assigned medication is ineffective, the other will pick up.
  4. Changes in taste . Some drugs can affect the sense of taste. Food suddenly becomes metallic, salty or bitter taste, or completely loses it. These changes will go away after chemotherapy for lung cancer.
  5. Stomatitis . Cytotoxic agents may cause inflammation in the oral cavity. In order to prevent infection is important in nursing care. It is better to use a soft toothbrush to prevent damage to the oral mucosa. If necessary, use special rinses, analgesics.
  6. Diarrhea . Diarrhea may occur in a soft form or expressed. When the symptom occurs more than 2-3 days, you need to inform your doctor. To prevent dehydration, it is necessary to take antidiarrheal medications. The doctor will recommend what to eat and drink at this time.
  7. Alopecia . Some chemotherapy drugs provoke a complete hair loss, others - only thinning or even no effect. If your hair falls out, it is usually seen in 2-3 weeks after the start of chemotherapy. Growth will begin as soon as the treatment is over. Many people wear hats, scarves or wigs. Can benefit and cause less grief if you know exactly what your hair will fall out, cut their advance shortly.
  8. Visual impairment . Cytotoxic agents are able to exert influence on the eyes and vision. Usually the effects are temporary and go away when the drug ends. But some changes may become long-term. The vision may become blurred or dulled. There is a dry, sore, or tearing eyes.
  9. Hearing impairment . Some drugs cause tinnitus. Also, the patient may find that you can not hear high-pitched sounds. Some people notice dizziness, and loss of sense of balance. Of these symptoms you must be sure to inform your doctor.

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